MEDICINAL PLANTS

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MEDICINAL PLANTS

The TCM medicinal plants garden currently comprises about 100 of the most commonly used plants for the production of TCM medicines. This basic assortment is to be expanded continuously to around 200 plants. In the following, you will find an overview of the plants in the garden as well as the medicines obtained from them.


Sources:

The drawings of medicinal plants were created by Lilian Lai Bensky and taken out of the book Chinese Herbal Medicine: Materia Medica (3rd edition) by Dan Bensky, Steven Clavey and Erich Stoeger. They are reproduced here with the permission of Eastland Press.


 

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001. Achyranthes bidentatae


牛膝 niu xi

Properties


Amaranthaceae
Height: 90 cm
Origin: all of China, except the northeast

Medicinals made from this plant:


淮牛膝 huai niu xi (Achyranthis bidentatae Radix)
Temperature: neutral
Taste: bitter, sour
Meridian: liver, kidneys

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002. Aconitum carmichaelii


乌头 wu tou

Eigenschaften


Ranunculaceae
Height: 80 cm
Origin: Sichuan, Yunnan

Medicinals made from this plant:


乌头 wu tou (Aconiti Radix Praep.)
Temperature: hot
Taste: pungent, bitter, very toxic
Meridian: liver, spleen

附子 fu zi (Aconiti Radix Lateralis Praep.)
Temperature: hot
Taste: pungent, toxic
Meridian: heart, kidneys, spleen

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003. Acorus tatarinowii


金钱蒲 jin qian pu

Properties


Araceae
Height: 70 cm
Origin: all of southern China

Medicinals made from this plant:


石菖蒲 shi chang pu (Acori Tatarinowii Rhizoma)
Temperature: warm
Taste: pungent, bitter, aromatic
Meridian: heart, stomach

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004. Agastache rugosa


藿香 huo xiang

Properties


Lamiaceae
Height: 80 cm - 1.50 m
Origin: all of China

Medicinals made from this plant:


藿香 huo xiang (Pogostemonis Herba)
Temperature: slichtly warm
Taste: pungent
Meridian: lungs, stomach, spleen

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005. Albizia julibrissin


合欢 he huan

Properties


Fabaceae
Height: 6 m
Origin: central and southwest of China

Medicinals made from this plant:


合欢皮 he huan pi (Albiziae Cortex)
Temperature: neutral
Taste: sweet
Meridian: heart, liver

合欢花 he huan hua (Albiziae Flos)
Temperature: neutral
Taste: sweet
Meridian: liver, stomach

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006. Alisma plantago-aquatica subsp. Orientale


泽泻 ze xie

Properties


Alismataceae
Height: 60 cm
Origin: Mongolia

Medicinals made from this plant:


泽泻 ze xie (Alismatis Rhizoma)
Temperature: cold
Taste: sweet, mild
Meridian: kidneys, urinary bladder

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007. Angelica dahurica


白芷 bai zhi

 

Properties


Apiaceae
Height: 1.20 m
Origin: central and northern China, mountains in southwestern China

Medicinals made from this plant:


白芷 bai zhi (Angelicae Dahuricae Radix)
Temperature: warm
Taste: pungent
Meridian: lungs, stomach, spleen

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008. Arctium lappa


牛蒡 niu bang

Properties


Asteraceae
Height: 1.50 m
Origin: all of China

Medicinals made from this plant:


牛蒡子 niu bang zi (Arctii Fructus)
Temperature: cold
Taste: pungent, bitter
Meridian: lungs, stomach

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009. Arisaema erubescens (A. amurense, A. heterophyllum)


A. erubescens  一把伞南星 yi ba san nan xing
A. amurense  东北天南星
A. heterophyllum 异叶天南星

Properties


Araceae
Height: 70 cm
Origin: all of China

Medicinals made from this plant:


天南星 tian nan xing (Arisaematis Rhizoma)
Temperature: warm
Taste: bitter, pungent, toxic
Meridian: liver, lungs, spleen

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010. Artemisia annua


黄花蒿 huang hua hao

Properties


Asteraceae
Height: 1 m
Origin: all of China

Medicinals made from this plant:


青蒿 qing hao (Artemisiae Annuae Herba)
Temperature: cold
Taste: bitter, pungent
Meridian: kidneys, liver, urinary bladder

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011. Aster tataricus


紫菀 zi wan

Properties


Asteraceae
Height: 1.20 m
Origin: northern and northwestern China

Medicinals made from this plant:


紫菀 zi wan (Asteris Radix et Rhizoma)
Temperature: slightly warm
Taste: pungent, bitter
Meridian: lungs

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012. Belamcanda chinensis


射干 she gan

Properties


Iridaceae
Height: 50 cm
Origin: all of China

Medicinals made from this plant:


射干 she gan (Belamcandae Rhizoma)
Temperature: cold
Taste: bitter
Meridian: lungs

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013. Bletilla striata


白及 bai ji

Properties


Orchidaceae
Height: 20 cm
Origin: Changjiang

Medicinals made from this plant:


白及 bai ji (Bletillae Rhizoma)
Temperature: cold
Taste: bitter, sweet
Meridian: lungs, stomach, liver

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014. Bupleurum chinense


北柴胡 bei chai hu

 

Properties


Apiaceae
Height: 60 cm
Origin: Hubei, Sichuan, northeast of China

Medicinals made from this plant:


柴胡 chai hu (Bupleuri Radix)
Temperature: cool
Taste: bitter, pungent
Meridian: urinary bladder, liver, pericard, san jiao

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015. Cannabis sativa


大麻 da ma

Properties


Cannabaceae
Height: 1.80 m
Origin: mainly northwestern China

Medicinals made from this plant:


火麻仁 huo ma ren (Cannabis Semen)
Temperature: neutral
Taste: sweet
Meridian: large intestine, spleen, stomach

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016. Celosia argentea


青葙 qing xiang

Properties


Amaranthaceae
Height: 50 cm
Origin: all of China

Medicinals made from this plant:


青葙子 qing xiang zi (Celosiae Semen)
Temperature: slightly cold
Taste: sweet
Meridian: liver

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017. Chaenomeles speciosa


皱皮木瓜 zhou pi mu gua

Properties


Rosaceae
Height: 2 m
Origin: central and western China

Medicinals made from this plant:


木瓜 mu gua (Chaenomelis Fructus)
Temperature: warm
Taste: sour
Meridian: liver, spleen

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018. Chrysanthemum x grandiflorum (morifolium)


菊花 ju hua

Properties


Asteraceae
Height: 60 cm
Origin: central and eastern China

Medicinals made from this plant:


菊花 ju hua (Chrysanthemi Flos)
Temperature: slightly cold
Taste: sweet, bitter
Meridian: lungs, liver

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019. Cnidium monnieri


蛇床 she chuang

Properties


Apiaceae
Height: 80 cm
Origin: all of China

Medicinals made from this plant:


蛇床子 she chuang zi (Cnidii Fructus)
Temperature: warm
Taste: pungent, bitter, slightly toxic
Meridian: kidneys

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020. Coix lacryma-jobi


薏苡 yi yi

Properties


Poaceae
Height: 50 cm
Origin: all of China

Medicinals made from this plant:


薏苡仁 yi yi ren (Coicis Semen)
Temperature: slightly cold
Taste: sweet, mild
Meridian: lungs, spleen, stomach, kidneys

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021. Dianthus superbus


瞿麦 qu mai

Properties


Caryophyllaceae
Height: 30 cm
Origin: northern China

Medicinals made from this plant:


瞿麦 qu mai (Dianthi Herba)
Temperature: cold
Taste: bitter
Meridian: urinary bladder, heart, small intestine

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022. Dictamnus dasycarpus = albus (Syn. gemäss Plantlist)


白鲜 bai xian

Properties


Rutaceae
Height: 60 cm
Origin: northeast of China

Medicinals made from this plant:


白鲜皮 bai xian pi (Dictamni Cortex)
Temperature: cold
Taste: bitter
Meridian: spleen, stomach

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023. Eleutherococcus (Acanthopanax) senticosus


刺五加 ci wu jia

Properties


Araliaceae
Height: 5 m
Origin: central and northern China

Medicinals made from this plant:


刺五加 ci wu jia (Acanthopanacis Senticosi Radix et Rhizoma seu Caulis)
Temperature: warm
Taste: pungent, slightly bitter
Meridian: spleen, heart, kidneys

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024. Epimedium sagittatum (grandiflorum)


三枝九叶草 san zhi jiu ye cao

Properties


Berberidaceae
Height: 30 cm
Origin: Sichuan, along Changjiang

Medicinals made from this plant:


淫羊藿 yin yang huo (Epimedii Herba)
Temperature: warm
Taste: pungent, sweet
Meridian: kidneys, liver

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025. Eriobotrya japonica


枇杷 pi ba

Properties


Rosaceae
Height: 3 m
Origin: central and southern China

Medicinals made from this plant:


枇杷叶 pi pa ye (Eriobotryae Folium)
Temperature: neutral
Taste: bitter
Meridian: lungs, stomach

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026. Eucommia ulmoides


杜仲 du zhong

Properties


Eucommiaceae
Height: 5 m
Origin: southern China

Medicinals made from this plant:


杜仲 du zhong (Eucommiae Cortex)
Temperature: warm
Taste: sweet, slightly pungent
Meridian: kidneys, liver

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027. Fallopia (Polygonum) multiflora (multiflorum)


何首乌 he shou wu

Properties


Polygonaceae
Height: 2.50 m
Origin: central and southern China

Medicinals made from this plant:


何首乌 he shou wu (Polygoni Multiflori Radix)
Temperature: neutral
Taste: bitter, sweet, astringent
Meridian: liver, heart, large intestine

夜交藤 ye jiao teng (Polygoni Multiflori Caul)
Temperature: neutral
Taste: sweet
Meridian: heart, liver

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028. Foeniculum vulgare


茴香 hui xiang

Properties


Apiaceae
Height: 1.20 m
Origin: China, Europe

Medicinals made from this plant:


小茴香 xiao hui xiang (Foeniculi Fructus)
Temperature: warm
Taste: pungent
Meridian: liver, kidneys, spleen, stomach

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029. Forsythia suspensa 'Nymans'


连翘 lian qiao

Properties


Oleaceae
Height: 150 cm
Origin: central and southern China

Medicinals made from this plant:


连翘 lian qiao (Forsythiae Fructus)
Temperature: slightly cold
Taste: bitter, slightly pungent
Meridian: heart, luns, urinary bladder

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030. Ginkgo biloba 'Thelma'


银杏 yin xing

Properties


Ginkgoaceae
Height: 6 m
Origin: Zhejiang

Medicinals made from this plant:


白果 bai guo (Ginkgo Semen)
Temperature: neutral
Taste: sweet, bitter, astringent, slightly toxic
Meridian: kidneys, lungs

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031. Gleditsia sinensis


皂荚 zao jia

Properties


Fabaceae
Height: 20 m
Origin: all of China, except West

Medicinals made from this plant:


皂角刺 zao jiao ci (Gleditsiae Spina)
Temperature: warm
Taste: pungent
Meridian: liver, stomach, lungs

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032. Glycyrrhiza uralensis


甘草 gan cao

Properties


Fabaceae
Height: 150 cm
Origin: northern China

Medicinals made from this plant:


甘草 gan cao (Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma)
Temperature: neutral
Taste: sweet
Meridian: all 12 meridians, mainly heart, lungs, spleen, stomach

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033. Gynostemma pentaphyllum


绞股蓝 jiao gu lan

Properties


Cucurbitaceae
Height: 2 m
Origin: southern China

Medicinals made from this plant:


绞股蓝 jiao gu lan (Gynostemma Pentaphyllum)
Temperature: cold
Taste: slightly bitter
Meridian: lungs, heart

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034. Houttuynia cordata


蕺菜 ji cai

Properties


Saururaceae
Height: 50 cm
Origin: all of China

Medicinals made from this plant:


鱼腥草 yu xing cao (Houttuyniae Herba)
Temperature: cool
Taste: pungent
Meridian: lungs, large intestine

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035. Imperata cylindrica


白茅 bai mao

Properties


Poaceae
Height: 30 cm
Origin: all of China

Medicinals made from this plant:


白茅根 bai mao gen (Imperatae Rhizoma)
Temperature: cold
Taste: sweet
Meridian: lungs, stomach, small intestine, urinary bladder

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036. Isatis indigotica


菘蓝 song lan

Properties


Brassicaceae
Height: 80 cm
Origin: central and eastern China

Medicinals made from this plant:


板蓝根ban lan gen (Isatidis Radix)
Temperature: cold
Taste: bitter
Meridian: heart, lungs, stomach

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037. Leonurus japonicus


益母草 yi mu cao

Properties


Lamiaceae
Height: 60 cm - 1 m
Origin: all of China

Medicinals made from this plant:


益母草 yi mu cao (Leonuri Herba)
Temperature: slightly cold
Taste: pungent, bitter
Meridian: heart, liver, urinary bladder

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038. Ligusticum sinense cv. chuanxiong


川芎 chuan xiong

Properties


Apiaceae
Height: 50 cm
Origin: Sichuan

Medicinals made from this plant:


川芎 chuan xiong (Chuanxiong Rhizoma)
Temperature: warm
Taste: pungent
Meridian: liver, urinary bladder, pericard

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039. Liquidambar orientalis


枫香树 feng xiang shu

Properties


Hamamelidaceae
Height: 20 m
Origin: southern China

Medicinals made from this plant:


路路通 lu lu tong (Liquidambaris Fructus)
Temperature: neutral
Taste: bitter
Meridian: liver, stomach

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040. Lycium barbarum


宁夏枸杞 ning xia gou qi

Properties


Solanaceae
Height: 2 m
Origin: northwestern China

Medicinals made from this plant:


枸杞子 gou qi zi (Lycii Fructus)
Temperature: neutral
Taste: sweet
Meridian: liver, lungs, kidneys

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041. Lycium chinensis


枸杞 gou qi

Properties


Solanaceae
Height: 1 m
Origin: high plateau all of china

Medicinals made from this plant:


枸杞子 gou qi zi (Lycii Fructus)
Temperature: neutral
Taste: sweet
Meridian: liver, lungs, kidneys

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042. Magnolia officinalis var. biloba


厚朴 hou po

Properties


Magnoliaceae
Height: 12 m
Origin: central and southern China

Medicinals made from this plant:


厚朴 hou po (Magnoliae Officinalis Cortex)
Temperature: warm
Taste: bitter, pungent
Meridian: large intestine, lungs, spleen, stomach

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043. Melia toosendan


川 楝 chuan lian

Properties


Meliaceae
Height: 20 m
Origin: Sichuan

Medicinals made from this plant:


川楝子 chuan lian zi (Toosendan Fructus)
Temperature: cold
Taste: bitter, slightly toxic
Meridian: urinary bladder, liver, small intestine, stomach

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044. Mentha haplocalyx


薄荷 bo he

Properties


Lamiaceae
Height: 30 cm
Origin: all of China

Medicinals made from this plant:


薄荷 bo he (Menthae Herba, Menthae Haplocalycis Herba)
Temperature: cool
Taste: pungent, aromatic
Meridian: lungs, liver

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045. Ophiopogon japonicus


麦冬 mai dong

Properties


Liliaceae
Height: 20 cm
Origin: all of China

Medicinals made from this plant:


麦冬 mai dong (Ophiopogonis Radix)
Temperature: slightly cold
Taste: sweet, slightly bitter
Meridian: heart, lungs, stomach

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046. Oryza sativa


稻 dao

Properties


Poaceae
Height: 60 cm
Origin: all of China

Medicinals made from this plant:


梗米 jing mi (Oryzae Sativae Semen)
Temperature: cool
Tsste: sweet
Meridian: spleen, stomach

稻芽 dao ya (Oryzae Fructus germinatus)
Temperaturt: neutral
Taste: sweet
Meridian: spleen, stomach

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047. Paeonia lactiflora


芍药 shao yao

Properties


Paeoniaceae
Height: 60 cm
Origin: northern China

Medicinals made from this plant:


白芍 bai shao (Paeoniae Radix Alba)
Temperature: slightly cold
Taste: bitter, sour
Meridian: liver, spleen

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048. Paeonia suffruticosa


牡丹 mu dan

Properties


Paeoniaceae
Height: 1 m
Origin: Anhui, Henan

Medicinals made from this plant:


牡丹皮 mu dan pi (Moutan Cortex)
Temperature: slightly cold
Taste: pungent, bitter
Meridian: heart, liver, kidneys

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049. Paeonia veitchii


川赤芍 chuan chi shao

Properties


Paeoniaceae
Height: 50 cm
Origin: Sichuan

Medicinals made from this plant:


赤芍药 chi shao (yao) (Paeoniae Radix Rubra)
Temperature: slightly cold
Taste: sour, bitter
Meridian: liver, spleen

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050. Panax ginseng


人参 ren shen

Properties


Araliaceae
Height: 80 cm
Origin: northeast of China

Medicinals made from this plant:


人参 ren shen (Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma)
Temperature: slightly warm
Taste: sweet, slightly bitter
Meridian: lungs, spleen

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051. Panax quinquefolius


西洋参 xi yang shen

Properties


Araliaceae
Height: 70 cm
Origin: northern China

Medicinals made from this plant:


西洋参 xi yang shen (Panacis Quinquefolii Radix)
Temperature: cold
Taste: sweet, slightly bitter
Meridian: heart, kidneys, lungs

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052. Perilla frutescens


紫苏 zi su

Properties


Lamiaceae
Height: 80 cm
Origin: all of China

Medicinals made from this plant:


紫苏叶 zi su ye (Perillae Folium, Folium Perillae Frutescentis)
Temperature: warm
Taste: pungent, aromatic
Meridian: lungs, spleen

紫苏子 zi su zi ( Perillae Fructus)
Temperature: warm
Taste: pungent
Meridian: large intestine, lungs

紫苏梗 zi su geng (Perillae Caulis)
Temperature: slightly warm
Taste: pungent, sweet
Meridian: lungs, spleen, stomach

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053. Phellodendron amurense


黄檗 huang bo

Properties


Rutaceae
Height: 15 m
Origin: northeast of China

Medicinals made from this plant:


黄柏 guan huang bo (Phellodendri Chinensis Cortex)
Temperature: cold
Taste: bitter
Meridian: kidneys, urinary bladder

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054. Phragmites communis/australis


芦苇 lu wie

Properties


Poaceae
Height: 2.5 m
Origin: all of China

Medicinals made from this plant:


芦根 lu gen (Phragmitis Rhizoma)
Temperature: cold
Taste: sweet
Meridian: lungs, stomach

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055. Phyllostachys nigra


紫竹 zi zhu

Properties


Poaceae
Height: 8 m
Origin: all of China

Medicinals made from this plant:


竹茹 / 竹沥 zhu ru (Bambusae Caulis in Taenia)
Temperature: slightly cold
Taste: sweet
Meridian: lungs, stomach, gallbladder

zhu li (Bambusae Succus)
Temperature: cold
Taste: sweet
Meridian: heart, lungs, stomach

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056. Pinellia ternata


半夏 ban xia

Properties


Araceae
Height: 30 cm
Origin: all of China

Medicinals made from this plant:


半夏 ban xia (Pinelliae Rhizoma)
Temperature: warm
Taste: pungent, toxic
Meridian: lungs, spleen, stomach

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057. Plantago asiatica


车前 che qian

Properties


Plantaginaceae
Height: 50 cm
Origin: all of China

Medicinals made from this plant:


车前子 che qian zi (Plantaginis Semen)
Temperature: cold
Taste: sweet
Meridian: urinary bladder, kidneys, liver, lungs

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058. Platycodon grandiflorus


桔梗 jie geng

Properties


Campanulaceae
Height: 40 cm
Origin: all of China

Medicinals made from this plant:


桔梗 jie geng (Platycodonis Radix)
Temperature: neutral
Taste: bitter, pungent
Meridian: lungs

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059. Polygonatum odoratum


玉竹 yu zhu

Properties


Liliaceae
Height: 50 cm
Origin: all of China, except the northwest

Medicinals made from this plant:


玉竹 yu zhu (Polygonati Odorati Rhizoma)
Temperature: slightly cold
Taste: sweet
Meridian: lungs, stomach

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060. Prunella vulgaris


夏枯草 xia ku cao

Properties


Lamiaceae
Height: 30 cm
Origin: all of China

Medicinals made from this plant:


夏枯草 xia ku cao (Prunellae Spica)
Temperature: cold
Taste: bitter, pungent
Meridian: gallbladder, liver

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061. Prunus (Armeniaca) armeniaca (vulgaris)


杏 xing

Properties


Rosaceae
Height: 5 m
Origin: northern China

Medicinals made from this plant:


杏仁 xing ren (Armeniacae Amarum Semen)
Temperature: slightly warm
Taste: bitter, slightly toxic
Meridian: lungs, large intestine

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062. Prunus (Armeniaca) mume


梅 mei

Properties


Rosaceae
Height: 5 m
Origin: central China

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